Bronchial asthma is an inflammatory disease that tends to have a chronic course. The main clinical sign of such a pathological process is recurrent attacks of shortness of breath and suffocation. It is believed that this pathology occupies a leading position among all respiratory disorders. People of any age can encounter it for the first time.
According to statistics, at the moment there are about three hundred million people in the world who suffer from bronchial asthma. It is worth noting that the children's age group faces such violations somewhat more often than adults. At the same time, the danger of this pathology lies in the fact that without timely medical care during the onset of an attack, there is a fairly high risk of death. In addition, such a pathological process can lead to many other complications, for example, emphysema of the lungs.
The mechanism of development of bronchial asthma is that a chronic inflammatory process is formed in the bronchial wall. Most often, its development is provoked by an allergic predisposition to any substances. However, in some cases, respiratory disorders may also be associated with non-allergic factors. As a result of chronic inflammation, at the slightest contact of the body with an irritating substance, a rapid narrowing of the bronchi is formed. At the same time, the developing obstruction may have several reasons. The first reason lies in the fact that swelling increases in the wall of the bronchi, leading to their narrowing. In addition, there is a possibility of smooth muscle spasm. The second mechanism of obstruction is represented by excessive mucus production, which clogs the bronchial lumen. With a prolonged course of the pathological process, a third mechanism can be realized, which consists in replacing the muscle tissue in the bronchial wall with a connective one.
As mentioned earlier, most often bronchial asthma has an allergic genesis. As a result, in most cases, a variety of external or internal allergens act as provoking factors for the development of an attack. These may include various gases, dust, pet hair, medicines, food, detergents and cleaning products, plant pollen, and so on. In some cases, the chronic inflammatory process may be due to the presence of infectious agents in the body. In this case, an allergic reaction is a consequence of the release of bacteria products of their vital activity. In addition, their role in the development of such a disease is played by:
Depending on the cause of development, bronchial asthma is divided into two fundamentally different types: allergic and non-allergic. The development of an allergic type is associated with the presence of hypersensitivity to a substance in the body. In a non-allergic form, substances that do not cause allergies, for example, tobacco smoke, act as a provoking factor. In addition, there is another species, which is called unspecified. It is established if the cause of such a disease cannot be identified.
Depending on how often exacerbations occur, this pathological process is divided into several degrees of severity:
The first degree is intermittent
It is characterized by the occurrence of seizures no more than once a week. At the same time, it is characteristic that such attacks have a short duration and develop gradually. Suffocation at night occurs no more than twice a month. The peak exhalation rate in this case is more than eighty percent of the normal rate;
The second degree is mild persistent
The disease worsens more than once a week, but not more than once a day. At night, shortness of breath occurs from two to three times a month. The peak exhalation rate is also more than eighty percent;
The third degree is medium persistent
Breathing is disturbed daily or almost every day. Night attacks are noted more than once a week. A characteristic feature is a decrease in the level of physical activity, general weakness and sleep disturbance. The peak exhalation rate is in the range of sixty to eighty percent;
The fourth degree is severe persistent
Asthmatic attacks occur daily during the daytime and several times a week at night. The normal lifestyle of a sick person becomes almost impossible. The level of peak exhalation rate does not exceed sixty percent.
The main symptom of bronchial asthma is attacks of suffocation. Such attacks are usually preceded by severe sneezing and copious discharge from the nasal cavity. After a while, breathing is disturbed. An important point is that the process of inhalation becomes more difficult, while exhalation becomes longer. Against the background of the attack, compression in the chest, cough, as well as loud wheezing wheezes when inhaling are noted.
Of the medications for arresting an attack , they can be used:
In addition, mucolytic and expectorant drugs are widely used, as well as antibacterial agents for the addition of secondary inflammatory diseases in the respiratory system.
The main way to prevent seizures is to avoid substances that can provoke them. In addition, you should give up smoking and treat emerging infectious diseases in the body in a timely manner.